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Patients receiving radiation therapy and had undergone
Radiation treatment as surgery, is a method of regional impact locally. In the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation on the principle of lethal damage to tumor into account the tolerance of tissue surrounding the tumor to maintain their viability. Radiation therapy is used as a method of radical treatment, a complement to surgery or chemotherapy and palliative purposes. More than 60% of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. Radiation treatment, unlike surgery called bloodless. Patients prefer it for safety, better cosmetic and functional result. But it is not harmless to the body.
Modern high-energy radiation sources (betatron, linear accelerator) is less damaging normal tissue than gamma and X-ray therapeutic apparatus. However, to completely avoid the damaging effect of the tumor tissue adjacent to or located above it, as well as long-term, highly sensitive systems and organs (blood-forming region, rich in lymphoid tissue, nerve receptors) is impossible.
To a greater or lesser extent, the negative effect of radiation therapy on the body often manifests itself in the course of treatment or shortly thereafter, sometimes after a long period. Therefore, when radiation therapy is not only observed the radiation reaction, but the beam damage to surrounding healthy tissue and tumor bodies caught in the irradiation zone. Under the radiation reaction time to understand, usually on their own passing, functional changes in the surrounding healthy tissue and tumor bodies caught in the irradiation zone. Under radiation injuries to understand persistent functional and structural changes in the surrounding healthy tissue and tumor bodies caught in the irradiation zone. Distinguish local and general reactions and injuries - effects of radiation treatment.
Local reactions as consequences of radiation treatment.
Most often damaged skin over the tumor irradiation fields. Already in the course of treatment there is a persistent redness. In the subsequent develop inflammatory reactions: the epidermis, initially dry, then wet-effusion, laryngitis, esophagitis, perihondrit, pulmonity, enteritis, colitis, recto, cystitis. These reactions usually occur during treatment, immediately after its completion, or within 6 months. after radiotherapy. To prevent these complications lubricate the radiation field Vinylinum , liniments aloe, Tesa, sea buckthorn oil, or other special means of prevention of radiation damage to the skin and mucous membranes. Sometimes the radiation reaction can go without treatment, after cessation of radiotherapy.
Local damage after radiation treatment.
After radiation treatment are irreversible changes in the skin of irradiation fields in the form of thinning it, atrophy, loss of adnexal structures (hair loss, dryness), increased pigmentation, persistent expansion of capillaries (telangiectasia), subcutaneous tissue sclerosis. This skin is less resistant to mechanical and chemical effects that require monitoring, and in instances of late wet epidermita, radiation ulcers - a special treat.
Late complications are also seen in mucous membranes adjacent to the irradiated tumor areas: the mouth, esophagus, rectum. Late epiteliity esophagus (esophagitis) were observed after radiation treatment of mediastinal tumors, radiation parasternal area in cancer of internal quadrants of the breast. They manifest a burning sensation, sometimes dysphagia (swallowing disorders). Treatment: 20% solution inside Vinylinum for dessert spoon every 2-3 hours, the solution of novocaine before meals, light diet, sea buckthorn and other vitamin containing oil.
Radiation treatment for cervical cancer often leads to late rektitam and cystitis. There are frequent and painful urge to defecation (tenesmus), mucous and bleeding during defecation, urination. These symptoms, patients should be examined with the production of specialized rectoscopy, cystoscopy and radiologic studies. Rektity enemas to treat oil (fish oil Vinylinum, etc.). Therapeutic enema should be done after cleaning. Enter drug, warmed to a temperature of 32-36 ° C, to slow. Therapeutic enema best done at night.
More severe radiation complications in the form of radiation ulcers, chronic inflammation of the periosteum , necrosis of cartilage, bone fractures, internal and external fistulas, and atrophy of the restrictions in recent years are rare. The diagnosis of these complications is established after a thorough examination and biopsy. These injuries usually occur at a later date after the end of radiotherapy, require long-term medical and occasionally surgical treatment.
Ray ulcers are painful, long-term healing and are prone to malignant transformation. With failure of conservative therapy surgical treatment - excision within healthy, not exposed to radiation exposure of tissues, followed by skin grafting.
Overall effects of radiation treatment.
Common adverse effects of radiotherapy, as well as local, come early in the course of treatment, and later, after treatment, sometimes after a few months or a year.
Early radiation reactions are manifested as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, reducing the number of white blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes in the blood, anemia. High-calorie and light diet, fortification, a blood transfusion or leukocyte mass usually eliminate these complications and can finish a course of treatment started. If these effects are persistent or progressing, to interrupt treatment.
In some patients depression forming organs detected after treatment and is stable. Therefore, monitoring of patients undergoing radiation therapy, provides for the mandatory production of blood tests every 3 months. in the first years after treatment and subsequently at least 2 times a year. When the anemizatsii and leukopenia control blood produced more often - if indicated.
After radiation suppression of hematopoietic function of bone marrow requires a specialized, comprehensive and systematic treatment. It is bracing events: fortification, creating favorable conditions for domestic and industrial, nourishing diet. Specialized treatment is applied:
a) repeated transfusions of blood and its individual components (leukocyte mass, red blood cells);
b) drugs that stimulate leucopoiesis (reproduction of white blood cells);
c) drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis (red blood cell reproduction).
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