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Events hygienic nature of the care
General hygiene measures character; position the patient in bed, Skin Care, Oral Care, Eye Care, Care of the ears, nose care, Hair Care, Hygiene person caring for the sick
GENERAL NATURE OF THE EVENT HYGIENIC
If you watch the cancer patients is very important regular weighing, since the fall of body weight is one of the signs of disease progression. Regular measurement of body temperature allows to identify the alleged disintegration of the tumor, the body's response to irradiation. These measurements of body weight and temperature must be recorded in history or in the outpatient chart.
Necessary to teach the patient and family hygiene measures nature.
Sputum, which is often isolated patients suffering from lung cancer and larynx, collected in special spittoon with good ground-covers. Spittoon must be washed daily with hot water and disinfected with 10-12% bleach solution. To destroy the evil-smelling odor in the spittoon add 15-30 ml of turpentine. Urine and feces are collected for the study of faience, or a rubber boat, which should be cleaned regularly with hot water and disinfected with bleach. In the metastatic lesions of the spine, often resulting in breast cancer or lung disease, prescribe bed rest and placed under the mattress, a wooden board to avoid pathological fractures. If you are caring for patients with inoperable lung cancers, are of great importance stay in the air, tiring walks, frequent ventilation, as patients with reduced respiratory surface of the lungs need an influx of clean air.
The patient in bed
Depending on the general condition of the patient takes a particular position in the bed. Distinguish active, passive and forced situation.
Is an active position in which the patient can turn to sit and do active movements in bed, but stand or walk on their own can not. The active position is not enough to mild disease. Called a passive position of the patient who is unconscious, or neurological patients with motor paralysis. Forced position of the patient takes himself to ease his condition. The pain syndrome of peptic ulcer patient is Bozeman forced situation, myocardial infarction - the supine position, with pleural effusion - on the sick side, etc.
Especially pronounced in patients with a forced situation with shortness of breath. They try to sit down, rest his hands on the edge of the bed, pull the leg. In such cases, a patient's back should put a good whipping 03/02 pillows, put the headrest or to raise the head end of a functional bed. If the patient leans against the wall, then under the back cushion, and feet placed bench. In the presence of an abscess in the lung or bronchus is necessary to create a better situation for a discharge of mucus. This so-called bronchial drainage. The patient can take position on his knees and forehead rest against the bed (Mohammedan prayer position), or lower his head below the edge of the bed (looking footwear posture under the bed). If a patient has a unilateral process in the lungs, it falls on the opposite side, ie, the healthy side: with expectoration of sputum from patients of light increases.
Patients who are long in bed and do not take hygiene bath, wipe with a towel moistened with water or a disinfectant solution: camphor spirit, eau de cologne, alcohol mixed with water, vinegar, etc. To do this, one end of the towel moistened with disinfectant slightly wring out and wipe the skin behind the ears, neck, back and front of the chest and armpits. Should pay attention to the folds under the breasts, where the obese women can be formed diaper rash. Then wipe dry skin in the same manner.
In patients who are long in bed, especially in the supine position, pressure sores often appear (usually on the sacrum, shoulder blades, heels and elbows). Contribute to the formation of bedsores bad skin care seriously ill, uncomfortable bed, a rare perestilanie it. In the reddening of the skin on the rump or other places should be well rubbed it with lemon, cut in half, or a damp cloth, wipe dry, hold a quartz lamp irradiation and systematically monitor the condition of the skin. If the sores still appear, it is necessary to lubricate them a strong solution of potassium permanganate and bandage with ointment Vishnevsky, or a mixture of Peruvian balsam fir oil, emulsion or other sintomitsinovoy ointments.
For the prevention of pressure sores every time perestilaya bed, you need to inspect the body of the patient and pay attention to the places where they occur most often. Need daily to wipe the skin with a disinfectant solution, and under the places of possible formation of pressure sores lay a rubber circle, covered with litter or in a pillowcase. Enclose a circle so that the sacrum was over his hole. Industry produces a device to prevent bedsores, consisting of a rubberized inflatable mattress with a corrugated surface and electrically heated.
Walking sick every morning and evening brushing their teeth, and rinse after meals mouth with salty water (1 / 2 teaspoon salt per cup of water) or a weak solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). Ill, who can not brush their teeth after every meal to clean the mouth. For this caregiver takes a pair of tweezers a cotton ball, wet it in a 5% solution of boric acid or 2% sodium bicarbonate, a weak solution of potassium permanganate, or in warm boiled water and rub the patient's teeth and tongue. After that the patient rinse the mouth well.
In seriously ill patients often develop inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth - sores: there pain when eating, excessive salivation, temperature may rise. Stomatitis and parotitis (inflammation of the parotid gland) is sharply aggravate the patient's condition and can cause sepsis. Therefore, careful toilet of the mouth. Used to rinse the solution of soda (sodium bicarbonate), sodium bicarbonate or boric acid (1/2-1 teaspoon per cup of water). It is also useful rinse with mineral water, hydrogen peroxide (1-2 tablespoons per cup of water) and potassium permanganate (1:1000). Temperature liquids used for rinsing should be 20-40 ° C, the patient give a special dish for spitting. Oral mucosa and tongue rubbed a piece of gauze soaked in 1% solution of borax with the addition of glycerol or chamomile extract. Medication effects on the mucous membrane is to conduct a so-called application or irrigation. Application - overlaying sterile gauze pads, soaked in a disinfectant solution (2% solution of chlorine bleach, or 0.1% 'furatsillina solution) for 3-5 minutes. This procedure is repeated several times a day. You can make applications with painkillers. Irrigation is done with the help of a mug Esmarch, Janet syringe or rubber bulb. Breast is covered with oilcloth, a patient, half-sitting position gives it in his hands he holds a tray, which brings the chin to swelling of wash liquid. Caring, pushing the handle with a spatula or tablespoon alternately left, then right cheek, and enters the nozzle irrigates the mouth. Under the pressure of the jet there is a mechanical wash food particles, pus, etc. mug Esmarch should be at a distance of 1 m above the patient's head. This provides sufficient strength of the jet. The tip is heated before the procedure, and after - washed under running water and stored in 2% solution of chlorine bleach or a solution furatsillina 1:5000.
Patients with high fever or severe blood circulation disorders sometimes occurs thrush, which appears very unpleasant odor from the mouth, depressing operating on the patient or others. The fight against canker sores is to treat the underlying disease, as well as the appointment of substances that destroy odor: mouthwash 0.5% solution of chlorine bleach, 2% sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), or 1% sodium chloride (table salt).
If signs of mumps (inflammation of the parotid glands) requires check-up, which assigns a massive antibiotic therapy, taking pre-seeding of the oral bacterial flora on the sensitivity to antibiotics.
Sometimes patients have dry mouth and painful cracks in the corners of his mouth. To facilitate the state to impose a lip gauze moistened with water, then smeared his lips with any fat. Not allowed to widely open mouth, touching and tearing cracks formed crust, use a toothbrush. Should rinse your mouth after every meal.
Dentures at night, should shine, rinse thoroughly with soap and water until the morning stored in a clean glass, and in the morning to wash and wear.
Eye care requires special attention. The eyes were washed with secretions, gluing eyelashes. Apply sterile gauze swabs soaked in warm solution of 2% boric acid. When the disease eye drops instilled into the eye and rubbing ointments. Pipette for burial before eating boiled. Before the procedure carefully caring washes their hands with soap and a brush, rub them with alcohol, so as not to introduce infection into the eye. Instillation technique: the left hand slightly retard the lower eyelid, and inviting the patient to look in the opposite direction, slowly let in a drop closer to the nose, after waiting a bit, let in a drop of second and ask the patient to close his eyes. Eye ointment put on the lids of the special glass spatula. Ointments and spatula should be sterile. Eyelid patient retard down, lay it over cream and soft movements of the fingers through the eyelid rubbing it on the mucosa.
Care for the ears
Walking patients during the daily morning toilet independently wash their ears. Patients who are in bed for a long time, periodically clean the ears caregiver. If sulfuric acid formed cork, it is removed. For the instillation of drops into the ear bends her head in a healthy patient's side. Retard the left hand ear lobe, and right holding pipette, which is administered from a drop in the ear canal. After that, lay a small ear swab for several minutes.
If the patient is weak and can not relieve the nasal passage yourself, caring must be removed daily formed a crust. To do this, enter the nasal passages turundas cotton soaked in liquid paraffin, glycerol, or any oil solution, throwing back her head to the patient, and after 2-3 min rotational motions are removed crust.
In patients who are long in bed, requires constant monitoring of the hair. Men cut short a week and spend hygienic bath with head washing. Women with long hair, comb them daily with a thick comb for each individual patient. Aliens combs use is strictly prohibited. Short hair comb from roots to ends, and divided into long parallel strands and slowly comb from the ends, trying to pull them. Thick comb dipped in a solution of vinegar, a well-combed dander and dirt. To get a better wash your head, you should use different shampoos, baby soap or water mixed with henna. If the patient's condition allows, he washed his head during the hygienic bath. If the patient does not rise for a long time, he washed his head in his bed. During soaping should be well rubbed the skin under the hair. Then the hair is rinsed and wiped dry, then carefully combed. After washing the hair, especially for women with long hair, wears a caregiver on their heads or towel scarf to avoid hypothermia. You need every day to monitor the state of the scalp of patients and to conduct prevention lice (lousiness).
CLEANING PERSON care for the sick
Caregiver must be a model of cleanliness and neatness. He must constantly monitor the cleanliness of the body, at least once a week, and when excessive sweating - often take hygienic bath, carefully monitor the hands and wash them before eating and after using the toilet, before and after each manipulation. Nails should be cut short and not painted. Wash your hands should be brushed in order to better clean the nail phalanx. If you have dry skin after washing your hands smeared with hand cream or any fat. You can prepare a mixture of glycerol (3 / 4) with ammonia (1 / 4).
Very important is the cleanliness of clothing. It is desirable that caregivers have clean white robe, white cap and kerchief covering her hair, sneakers, allowing to move silently and is easily decontaminated. Robe and headscarf should be left in a designated locker.
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