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Dictionary of Cancer
Approved by the National Cancer Institute (USA)
Practices that are not recognized by the medical community as standard or traditional approaches to medicine. These practices include dietary supplements, herbal medicines, massage, magnetic therapy, meditation, and so on. Alternative therapies often employs methods of cancer treatment, which did not show efficacy in clinical studies.
Medications that help prevent or reduce nausea.
Withdrawal of cells or tissue for analysis of a pathologist. When a sample of tissue or fluid removed with a needle, a procedure called a biopsy.
A procedure in which a thin tube is inserted through the nose or mouth to examine the patient's lungs and respiratory tract.
Treatment with substances that causes the immune system to fight certain bacteria or viruses.
Study the inner walls of the stomach using a thin tube (gastroscope) which is inserted through the mouth and esophagus.
Branch of medicine that studies diseases of the blood.
Inherited an increased risk of developing the disease.
Diagnosis is based on a study of parts of the tissue under a microscope. Diagnosis: the process of identifying medical disorders.
Cancer treatment, aimed at stimulation and the resumption of the ability of the immune system to fight cancer. This therapy has side effects that may occur as a result of cancer treatment.
Chemical, physical or biological agent capable of if it enters the human body lead to the formation of malignant tumors.
Studies that examine the effectiveness of new medical approaches to treatment of diseases, which include research into new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Inspection of the inside of the colon using a thin tube (kolonos-cop) through the anus. This test can collect tissue dlyadalneyshego studies already under a microscope.
The method of layering the study of internal body parts taken from different angles, created by a computer and x-ray machine.
Cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. Two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Treatment by ionizing radiation, in which cancer cells are killed, and tumor size is reduced. Radiation can be directed to outside the body (external radiation therapy) or radiation source can be placed inside the body near the cancer (brachytherapy).
Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance that circulates in the body.
Procedure, during which the scraping is taken from the cervix to detect cancer and changes that can cause disease.
X-ray method for studying breast cancer.
Diagnostic indicator that cancer may be present in humans.
The spread of cancer to other parts of the body. A tumor formed by cancer cells spread to other organs, called metastasis, or metastatic tumor. Metastasis contains the same cells as the primary tumor.
The antibodies produced in the laboratory, which are produced by almost any substance (mainly proteins and polysaccharides), which specifically bind to the antibody. Monoclonal antibodies are used in detecting and treating cancer, each antibody is a specific type of protein on certain cancer cell types. Monoclonal antibodies can be used alone or to deliver drugs, toxins or radioactive material directly into the tumor.
Complete blood count:
The analysis, which shows the number of red blood cells, white cells and platelets in the blood.
Branch of medicine that studies the causes of cancer and their development, as well as prevention and treatment of tumor diseases.
Surgery to remove or replace parts of the body (the body) or to detect the presence / absence of cancer.
Determining the stage of the disease:
Measures to determine the prevalence of cancer in a patient, especially in cases of disease spread from the primary site to other parts of the body. Determining the stage of disease is important to determine the best treatment plan.
Tumor ulceration of the skin:
Type of damaged tissue, marked by breaks in the skin or on the surface of the body and death of living tissue. This type of injury can occur when different types of cancer, including breast cancer and melanoma, especially in late-stage disease.
Pathological process represented newly formed tissue in which cells have a dysregulation of growth and differentiation. Tumors can be benign or malignant.
The teaching of pathological processes and diseases through research, mostly microscopic, study of changes that occur vkletkah and body tissues.
Problems that occur when treatment affects healthy organs and tissues. Common side effects of cancer treatment include fatigue, pain, nausea, vomiting, bone marrow depression and hair loss.
Damage (organ, tissue):
Area of abnormal tissue, which may be malignant or benign.
Development of multiple polyps (tumor formation, towering above the level of the mucous membrane).
Actions aimed at reducing the impact of risk factors for cancer such as tobacco use, obesity, reducing the time spent in the sun, and increase protective factors, such as regular exercise, healthy weight and balanced nutrition.
Withdrawal of fluid or tissue through a needle.
Scanning with positron-emission tomography, a procedure in which radioactive glucose injected into a vein. Special detecting equipment (PET scanner) keeps track of the image is in the place where it's stored glucose. Since cancer cells need more glucose than normal cells, images are used to detect cancer cells in the human body.
Type of treatment in which a monoclonal antibody directed specifically at cancer cells, attach a radioactive substance. Radioactive substance kills cancer cells.
Branch of medicine that studies the use of ionizing radiation to diagnose and treat various diseases.
Illness, during which there is a division of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries. Cancer cells can invade adjoining parts of the body and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The main types of cancers are carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The four major types of cancer are chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy and surgery.
Disease-free period after successful treatment, when there are no symptoms. If partial remission, some (but not all) symptoms of cancer disappear. When complete remission all symptoms of cancer disappear, although cancer still may remain in the body.
Symptoms and signs:
Indicator (such as headache, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and pain) that the patient is in a state of illness. Sign - it is also indicator of the state other than the norm, the doctor detected in the survey.
Medical examination to detect the disease at the stage of the lack of symptoms.
The level of poisoning (toxicity) of an organism.
Neoplasm or a seal which may be malignant or benign.
Factors that increase the risk of cancer. Risk factors include age, certain eating habits, obesity, lack of exercise and exposure to radiation and other agents that initiate cancer development.
Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells.
Treatment with drugs or other substances that can recognize and attack cancer cells without damaging normal cells (eg, monoclonal antibody).
Cancer and diet
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