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Main »  Thyroid Cancer » Types of thyroid cancer.
Types of thyroid cancer.

Types of thyroid cancer.

Thyroid cancer is not frequent localization of tumors. It affects not only people mostly the elderly, which is typical of other key locations, but also in young adolescence and even childhood.

Incidence of thyroid cancer over the past 20 years has more than doubled. Under the influence of environmental factors can be expected to continue to not only increase the number of patients, but mortality from this disease. Despite the external localization of the tumor detected in most cases in 3-4 stages.

The main difficulties in early diagnosis due to the fact that cancer can exist for a long time under the guise of, or against other thyroid diseases. Especially difficult is the diagnosis of early cancer in the absence of specific symptoms to him, the frequent combination with other types of thyroid pathology.

For highly differentiated cancer include the two histologic types: papillary and follicular.

Papillary carcinoma is approximately 70% of all malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. It can develop at any age, but most - at the third and fourth decade of life. The tumor often invades the thyroid capsule. The disease spreads to the lymph current within the prostate and regional lymph nodes. Ability to lymphatic metastases does not depend on the size of the primary tumor. By the time of surgical intervention in metastatic cervical lymph nodes are detected in approximately 90% of children and less than 35% of adults. Moreover, distant metastases in children are also more common.

Follicular cancer is about 15% of thyroid tumors and occurs in older age groups. Frequency increases in endemic goiter areas. The typical pattern of tumors: solitary, do not germinate capsule glands, firm, large size. Malignancy is determined by germination and penetration of the capsule in blood vessels. Distribution of the vessels can lead to distant metastases in the lungs and bones. At the same time lymphogenous metastases are rare.

The slow growth of differentiated tumors, timely diagnosis affect treatment outcomes. Five-year survival rate is 90-96%. Ten years of living 75-85% of patients.

Moderately differentiated (solid) is considered to be medullary carcinoma. It is characterized by relatively slow growth. Regional metastases occur in 40-55% of cases. After radical treatment of a five-year survival rate to 85%, ten-year - 80%.

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) cancer develops from the follicular epithelium of thyroid gland is the most aggressive, often arises because of the long-existing adenomas, characterized by rapid growth, early extensive metastasis. The average life expectancy of patients with the time of diagnosis about 6 months.

Squamous cell carcinoma - a rare form of thyroid tumors, which is necessary to distinguish from squamous metaplasia occurring in papillary tumors. The flow resembles anaplastic carcinoma. Malignant lymphoma - a rare form that occurs in the older age group (women more than men) and is a rapidly growing goiter. Often develops on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a long history. Sometimes, a malignant lymphoma is a manifestation of generalized lymphoma.

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