In oncology determination of tumor markers used for primary diagnosis.
Neoplastic markers (tumor markers) - specific protein compounds, whose level in blood increased in the presence of a malignant tumor. In oncology determination of these compounds is used for primary diagnosis, in the process of dynamic observation of patients treated for early diagnosis of recurrence, as well as to assess the effectiveness of the anticancer treatment.
Currently selected and used by a large number of tumor markers, depending on the affected organ. The program check-up using one of the most common and important. Increase their level (in particular a significant increase) in human blood - a serious cause for in-depth survey, which is planned depending on what oncomarker increased.
Tumor markers PSA (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) - a substance of protein nature, which is produced by cells of the prostate. The main amount of PSA in the ducts of the prostate gland and contributes to liquefaction of the semen. Through the barrier between the ducts of the prostate and the bloodstream to the blood gets a small amount of PSA. Increased PSA in the blood due to the fact that the barrier is broken between the ducts of the prostate and the bloodstream. This may be associated with inflammation (prostatitis, abscess), benign prostatic hyperplasia and malignant neoplasm of the prostate, as well as urological manipulations: massage of the prostate, bladder catheterization and cystoscopy. However, the most pronounced and sustained increase in PSA, usually associated with prostate cancer. The combination of transrectal ultrasound and PSA determination - an effective method of diagnostic screening for prostate cancer.
Tumor markers CA 19-9 is a carbohydrate antigen, produced in normal cells of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Raising noted in pancreatic cancer, gall bladder, stomach, liver, ovary, and this marker could be increased by non-neoplastic chronic diseases (cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis), rheumatic diseases. For the diagnosis of chronic diseases is available and improving it - an occasion for a more detailed examination of the gastrointestinal tract to exclude a malignant lesion.
Tumor markers CEA (CEA, cancer embryonic antigen) has its principal application in the diagnosis of cancer of the colon and rectum. Nevertheless it, it can be upgraded and some species of lung cancer. Therefore, it referred to as nonspecific (not related to a particular organ, such as PSA) and its enhancement requires binding doobsledovaniya.
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